The End Nodes are devices embedded with LoRa chips.
• Sensors (used to detect the changing parameter eg. temperature, humidity, accelerometer, gps)
• Controllers (used to control remote devices, such as lamp)
• Converters (change data format between LoRa and IP data packages)
End nodes serve different applications and have different requirements. The LoRaWAN specification defines three device types.
• Class A: end nodes transmit whenever they need to and lie dormant during other times. Each end node’s uplink transmission is followed by two short downlink receive windows for downlink communications. So downlink communications from the server at any other time will have to wait until the next scheduled uplink. Class A end nodes are the lowest power which can used in smoke alarm, gas detector, etc.
• Class B: end nodes open extra receive windows for downlink communications periodically. In order for the end-device to open its receive window at the scheduled time, it receives a time-synchronized beacon from the gateway. This allows the server to know when the end-device is listening. Class B can be used in electric meters, water meters, etc.
• Class C: end nodes have almost continuously open receive windows, only closed when transmitting. Class C end nodes are the highest power but no delay and easily controlled which can be used in lamp control, door control, etc.